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100,000,000 Guinea Pigs : The Dangers of Consumption
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In 1927, responding to the seemingly overpowering claims of advertisers and mass marketers, engineer Frederick Schlink and economist Stuart Chase published Your Money's Worth, which argued for an "extension of the principle of buying goods according to impartial scientific tests rather than according to the fanfare and triumphs of higher salesmanship." Your Money's Worth became an instant best-seller, and the authors organized Consumers' Research, a testing bureau that provided information and published product tests in a new magazine, Consumers' Research Bulletin. The 1929 stock market crash heightened suspicion of consumer capitalism, and the magazine had 42,000 subscribers by 1932. In 1933, Schlink and Arthur Kallet (executive secretary of Consumers' Research) published 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs: Dangers in Everyday Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics. The book struck a responsive chord in depression-era America--it went through thirteen printings in its first six months and became one of the best-selling books of the decade. The book's first chapter ("The Great American Guinea Pig"), gave a flavor of their vigorous arguments.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
1.16 Kindergarten Books to Support Teaching African American History
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CC BY-SA
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This resource features suggested books for Kindergarten.  Books are beautifully illustrated featuring African-Americans.  All children will enjoy building their early concepts about print and reading experiences through these wonderful stories.  

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reading
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
"1500 Doomed":  People's Press  Reports on the Gauley Bridge Disaster
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The deadly lung disease silicosis is caused when miners, sandblasters, and foundry and tunnel workers inhale fine particles of silica dust--a mineral found in sand, quartz, and granite. In 1935, approximately 1,500 workers--largely African Americans who had come north to find work--were killed by exposure to silica dust while building a tunnel in Gauley Bridge, West Virginia. Ordinarily, silicosis takes a several years to develop, but these West Virginia tunnel workers were falling ill in a matter of months because of exposure to unusually high concentrations of silica dust. The crisis over silicosis suddenly became a national issue, as seen in this article in the radical newspaper Peoples' Press . In 1936 congressional hearings on the Gauley Bridge disaster, it was revealed that company officials and engineers wore masks to protect themselves when they visited the tunnel, but they failed to provide masks for the tunnelers themselves, even when the workers requested them.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
An 1893 address to the World’s Woman’s Temperance Union by Frances Willard, president of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union.
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This primary source is the speech given by Francis Willard, President of the World's Women's Temperance Union, at the organization's 20th annual convention. In it, she details women's roles in the Temperance Movement and how the Temperance Movement intersected with other social movements.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Author:
Digital Public Library of America
Francis E Willard
Date Added:
08/15/2022
1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii
Unrestricted Use
Public Domain
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This site recounts the struggle for control of Hawaii between native Hawaiians and American business interests in the late 1800s. This 1897 petition and a lobbying effort by native Hawaiians convinced the U.S. Congress not to annex the islands. But months later the U.S.S. Maine exploded in Havana and the Spanish-American War began. The U.S. needed a mid-Pacific fueling station and naval base.

Primary source images, standards correlation, and teaching activities are included in this resource.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Date Added:
08/24/2007
18b. Hamilton's Financial Plan
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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Presidents Washington ($1), Lincoln ($5), Jackson ($20), and Grant ($50) all appear on currency. But what about this guy Alexander Hamilton on the ten-spot? How did he get there? A sawbuck says you'll know the answer after reading this piece.

Subject:
Business and Information Technology
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
01/31/2018
2021 Tournament of Presidents (Bracketology)
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This ‘Tournament of Presidents’ activity gives students an opportunity to evaluate the presidents using a "bracket style" competition. Students will examine individual leadership characteristics that are key to the success of the chief executive. Students will utilize C-SPAN Presidential resources with special emphasis on the C-SPAN's 2021 Historians Survey of President Leadership.

Subject:
Social Studies
Civics and Government
U.S. History
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson
Lesson Plan
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Author:
C-SPAN
Date Added:
06/29/2022
46f. A Consumer Economy
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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The 1920s was a decade of increasing conveniences for the middle class. New products made household chores easier and led to more leisure time. Products previously too expensive became affordable. New forms of financing allowed every family to spend beyond their current means. Advertising capitalized on people's hopes and fears to sell more and more goods.

Subject:
Business and Information Technology
Marketing, Management and Entrepreneurship
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
01/31/2018
5th Grade Audio/Visual Resources for Teaching African American History
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CC BY-SA
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This resource is a list of audio books, videos and lesson plans that support students’ development of an accurate, integrative, and comprehensive knowledge of our nation’s history with a focus on the critical role African Americans played and continue to play in our country’s development. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson
Reading
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Jamie Murray-Branch
Date Added:
02/07/2022
5th Grade Suggested Books for Teaching African American History
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CC BY-SA
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This resource features suggested books for 5th grade that support students’ development of an accurate, integrative, and comprehensive knowledge of our nation’s history with a focus on the critical role African Americans played and continue to play in our country’s development. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reading
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Jamie Murray-Branch
Date Added:
02/07/2022
5th Grade - Transformative Learning Strategies for African American History
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CC BY-SA
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This resource features transformative learning strategies for 5th grade that support students’ development of an accurate, integrative, and comprehensive knowledge of our nation’s history with a focus on the critical role African Americans played and continue to play in our country’s development. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reading
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Jamie Murray-Branch
Date Added:
02/07/2022
"80 Rounds in Our Pants Pockets": Orville Quick Remembers Pearl Harbor
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The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, stunned virtually everyone in the U.S. military: Japan's carrier-launched bombers found Pearl Harbor totally unprepared. In this 1991 interview, conducted by John Terreo for the Montana Historical Society, serviceman Orville Quick, who was assigned to build airfields and was very near Pearl Harbor on December 6, 1941, remembers the attack. He also provided a vivid, and humorous, account of the chaos from a soldier's point of view.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
AAJFG - 1.01 - Wisconsin Black History and Contributions
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CC BY-SA
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According to Wisconsin’s Historical Society,  African Americans have been living and working in Wisconsin since the 18th century. The state's black population continued to grow slowly throughout the 19th century. Job opportunities in the 20th century led to significant African American settlement in Wisconsin, primarily in the southeastern part of the state, especially after World War II. These resources will support Wisconsin teachers in integrating historical accomplishments and experiences of African-American’s into their instruction on Wisconsin’s history.  Source: The Wisconsin Historical Society houses one of the nation's largest research collections on African-American history.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
03/31/2022
Remix
AAJFG - 1.01 - Wisconsin Black History and Contributions
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CC BY-SA
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According to Wisconsin’s Historical Society,  African Americans have been living and working in Wisconsin since the 18th century. The state's black population continued to grow slowly throughout the 19th century. Job opportunities in the 20th century led to significant African American settlement in Wisconsin, primarily in the southeastern part of the state, especially after World War II. These resources will support Wisconsin teachers in integrating historical accomplishments and experiences of African-American’s into their instruction on Wisconsin’s history.  Source: The Wisconsin Historical Society houses one of the nation's largest research collections on African-American history.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Author:
Tamara Mouw
Date Added:
10/29/2022
Remix
AAJFG - 1.01 - Wisconsin Black History and Contributions - PS 114 edition
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CC BY-SA
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According to Wisconsin’s Historical Society,  African Americans have been living and working in Wisconsin since the 18th century. The state's black population continued to grow slowly throughout the 19th century. Job opportunities in the 20th century led to significant African American settlement in Wisconsin, primarily in the southeastern part of the state, especially after World War II. These resources will support Wisconsin teachers in integrating historical accomplishments and experiences of African-American’s into their instruction on Wisconsin’s history.  Source: The Wisconsin Historical Society houses one of the nation's largest research collections on African-American history.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Date Added:
04/13/2022
AAJFG - 1.02 - Wisconsin Black History:  Notable Persons
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CC BY-SA
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Educators will find helpful resources to assist them in highlighting and paying tribute to Wisconsin’s African American men and women who have made significant contributions to the state, the nation and the rest of the world in the fields of science, politics, law, sports, the arts, entertainment, and many other fields. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
03/31/2022
AAJFG - 1.03 - Wisconsin Black History:  Guest Speaker Roster
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CC BY-SA
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Children benefit from seeing and talking to individuals from different ethnic and racial backgrounds.  This list of volunteer guest speakers supports an individual teacher or school in their efforts to showcase  African-Americans, young and old,  in WI . The guest speakers list have a variety of different backgrounds and represent a multitude of professions.  School personnel should contact the Education Committee guest speaker liaison, Gerald Sternberg, to obtain information on how best to contact the volunteer guest speaker and topics of interest.< geraldsternberg2@gmail.com> 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
03/31/2022
AAJFG - 1.04 - Sample Curricula/Syllabi, Lesson Plans and Field Trips
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CC BY-SA
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Sample curricula across K-12, syllabi, lesson plans and experiential learning activities can assist educators in augmenting their current curriculum content and student learning experiences.  These resources promote and support the teaching of American history through a lens that includes the significant contributions and experiences of African-Americans. Material is organized by grade level to match the conceptual, social-emotional and development needs of students.  In some cases, downloadable materials are available.  A variety of field trips in support of experiential learning  involving historical sites across the state are listed. Contact information for arranging a visit is provided. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Reference Material
Syllabus
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.05 - Visual History and Visual Media Showcasing the Strength, Perseverance and Oppression of African Americans Across Time
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CC BY-SA
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Visual history and visual media can have a profound impact on students’ understanding of our country’s history, events and its people. These resources were carefully selected based on their ability to inform and assist students in understanding historical facts and the intersectionality of race,  culture, economics and more.  The paucity of written resources related to the African-American experience makes the visual medium even more important to integrate into classroom instruction.  A recommended film library with a synopsis of the films is provided in Appendix A.  Teachers can access films on-line through a streaming service.  Specific scenes or an entire movie can be used to underscore key points and/or stimulate analytical activities

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.06 Books and Suggested Reading Materials
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CC BY-SA
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The books in this resource list , fiction and non-fiction, are appropriate for students (K-12) and highlight important historical events and experiences of African-Americans in our state and nation. Contributions from the Wisconsin Historical Society’s books featuring African-American protagonists are featured.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.07 - Africa Before the Slave Trade
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CC BY-SA
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Africa before the slave trade was a vibrant continent, the cradle of civilization, and the source of many scientific and cultural developments.  Unfortunately, this history is often overlooked when addressing world history. These resources will assist teachers in highlighting the continent of Africa , the history of black civilizations and their contributions to the United States and the Western Hemisphere.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.08 - Enslavement and The Civil War
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CC BY-SA
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According to the Library of Congress, “African-Americans were enslaved in what became the United States from early in the 17th century. Even so, by the time of the American Revolution and eventual adoption of the new Constitution in 1787, slavery was actually a dying institution. As part of the compromises that allowed the Constitution to be written and adopted, the founders agreed to end the importation of slaves into the United States by 1808.” These resources provide teachers with critical information on the lives and experiences of African-Americans prior to and during the Civil War.  An emphasis is placed on  the role of slave labor to support the U.S. economy as well as the moral dilemma of holding people in bondage.  

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.09 -  African American History Post Civil War and Civil Rights  Movement
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CC BY-SA
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These resources highlight the ways in which slavery did not end with the Civil War.  Although the term “slave” was no longer used, blacks were subjugated to sharecropping roles, limited educational opportunities and unfair judicial practices.  Teachers can address behavioral science, economic  geographic and social science education standards through the integration of this important period of American history.  The relationship between the restrictions placed on the African-American population that  persisted well into the 20th century and the current economic, health, social  and judicial challenges that continue to impact Black Americans today is made clear.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.10 - Transformative, Engaging and Introspective Learning Tools
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CC BY-SA
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These resources support classroom learning experiences that raise consciousness about the role of race in our society and implicit biases that may exist. The aim of heightened awareness is to help students identify ways in which our history can inform today’s society and how to use that knowledge to support continued growth for our country’s future.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.11 - Information for District Administrators
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CC BY-SA
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District administrators are responsible for a variety of tasks including hiring, explaining the rationale for curricular decisions and more.  Resources in this section provide administrators with important sources to assist them in cultivating a positive, culturally sensitive and successful learning community.

Subject:
Education
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.12 -  Appendix A: Films About African American History, Social Justice, Famous/Notable People & Afrofuturism
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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Film can be a very powerful, positive teaching medium when used in an intentional manner. For many of our students in Wisconsin, it is their introduction to African-Americans given the demographics of our state.  The films highlighted in this resource list cover a broad range of topics and include both documentaries as well as historical fiction. After a teacher has identified when he/she would like to use a film to underscore particular teaching standards and objectives, it is recommended that teachers watch the films in their entirety so they have full knowledge of the plot and character depictions. Segments of a film or the entire movie can be used for teaching.   The subcategories within the film list will assist teachers in narrowing down the particular films they may want to peruse. The American Film Associations’ ratings of the selected films are provided to assist teachers in making age-appropriate selections.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.13 - COMPILATION OF RESOURCES FOR REFRAMED SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM
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CC BY-SA
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Reframing American History is a resource guide for kindergarten through twelfth grade teachers, curriculum specialists and administrators.  The resources listed support the development of an accurate, integrative, and comprehensive social studies and history curriculum model that focuses on the critical role African Americans played in our country’s development. An emphasis is placed on three primary goals: Reframing American History is a resource guide for kindergarten through twelfth grade teachers, curriculum specialists and administrators.  The resources listed support the development of an accurate, integrative, and comprehensive social studies and history curriculum model that focuses on the critical role African Americans played in our country’s development. An emphasis is placed on three primary goals:Goal 1 focuses on easy access to a diverse group of vetted resources in support of a social studies curriculum for grades K through 12 that is inclusive and developmentally appropriate.  These resources highlight the experiences and contributions of African Americans since they are integral to the origins and development of the United States as well as Wisconsin. Goal 2 ensures that Wisconsin teachers (those in training as well as those currently teaching in the classroom) will have essential historical knowledge of African Americans, their history, and experiences as they relate to our country’s development. Evidenced-based instructional methods and materials will be made available to teachers to support their ability to foster their students’ learning in a positive and nurturing manner.  Goal 3 focuses on ensuring that all Wisconsin public school students graduate with the essential knowledge and skills that will prepare them to work and live in our racially and culturally diverse world. Fortified with this knowledge, they will be able to create an equitable and just society. To learn more about the African-American/Jewish Friendship Group, Inc., Education Committee, see the AAJFG multimedia slideshow. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.14 EXAMPLES OF KINDERGARTEN AND FIFTH GRADE RESOURCES USING A BUNDLING AND QUERY-BASED OR TOPIC SPECIFIC TEACHING MODEL
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CC BY-SA
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Bundling is the practice of creating groups (or “bundles”) of standards that are arranged together as a focus for an instructional lesson. Teachers are able to weave together several standards within a single lesson or unit while integrating each lesson into a larger curriculum sequence.  History instruction offers teachers many opportunities to bundle during query based or topic specific instruction.  Examples of bundling are presented in these resources.  Essential knowledge related to our multicultural society as it relates to the development of our country are also bundled into these sample resources.  To learn more about bundling, watch the video below. Bundled Instruction 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson
Reading
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/12/2022
AAJFG - 1.15 - Kindergarten Audio/Visual Resources for African American History
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-SA
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This resource is a list of audio books, videos and lesson plans that use music, photographs and video to bring to life African-American culture and experiences.  All children will enjoy these multimedia resources.  

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson
Reading
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.17 -  Kindergarten - Transformative Learning Strategies for African American History
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CC BY-SA
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This resource features developmentally appropriate interactive learning experiences that support students’ development of a sense of self and how we are all different but also the same.  An emphasis is placed on hands-on, fun learning.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Formative Assessment
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.18 - Resources to Support Kindergarten Educators' Understanding of Race, Racism and Positive Racial Identities
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-SA
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0.0 stars

This resource features articles, books and discussions that support educators in building their understanding of race, racism and positive racial identities. After exploring these resources, educators will be more equipped to support students’ development of an accurate, integrative, and comprehensive knowledge of our nation’s history with a focus on the critical role African Americans played and continue to play in our country’s development. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reading
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.19 - Wisconsin History Resources for Teaching African American History in Kindergarten
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CC BY-SA
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This resource helps kindergarteners discover the people, places, and legends that made Wisconsin history through the lens of the African-American experience.  Integration of these resources into traditional Wisconsin History resources will be easy and fun. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reading
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.20 - 5th Grade Audio/Visual Resources for Teaching African American History
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-SA
Rating
0.0 stars

This resource is a list of audio books, videos and lesson plans that support students’ development of an accurate, integrative, and comprehensive knowledge of our nation’s history with a focus on the critical role African Americans played and continue to play in our country’s development. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson
Reading
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.21 - 5th Grade Suggested Books for Teaching African American History
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-SA
Rating
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This resource features suggested books for 5th grade that support students’ development of an accurate, integrative, and comprehensive knowledge of our nation’s history with a focus on the critical role African Americans played and continue to play in our country’s development. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reading
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.22 - 5th Grade - Transformative Learning Strategies for African American History
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-SA
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This resource features transformative learning strategies for 5th grade that support students’ development of an accurate, integrative, and comprehensive knowledge of our nation’s history with a focus on the critical role African Americans played and continue to play in our country’s development. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reading
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.23 -  Wisconsin History Resources for Teaching African American History in 5th Grade
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CC BY-SA
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This resource features 5th grade appropriate historical resources that focus on Wisconsin's geographic role in abolition and the development of supportive and positive African American communities. These resources support students’ development of an accurate, integrative, and comprehensive knowledge of our nation’s history with a focus on the critical role African Americans played and continue to play in our country’s development. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
AAJFG - 1.24 Resources to Support 5th Grade Educators' Understanding of Race, Racism and Positive Racial Identities
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-SA
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This resource features articles, books and discussions that support primary educators in building their understanding of race, racism and positive racial identities. After exploring these resources, educators will be more equipped to support students’ development of an accurate, integrative, and comprehensive knowledge of our nation’s history with a focus on the critical role African Americans played and continue to play in our country’s development. 

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reading
Reference Material
Author:
Joanna Schimizzi
Merle Sternberg
Jamie Murray-Branch
Gerald Sternberg
Gloria Hawkins
Date Added:
04/10/2022
"The A-Bomb Won't Do What You Think!": An Argument Against Reliance on Nuclear Weapons
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Educational Use
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For four years after the U.S. dropped atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end World War II, America held a monopoly on the production of atomic weapons. During this period, debate centering on the use of nuclear bombs in future wars proliferated among government officials, scientists, religious leaders, and in the popular press. In the following article from Collier's, former Navy lieutenant commander William H. Hessler, using data from the Strategic Bombing Survey, argued that saturation bombing of urban areas during World War II, while devastating for civilians, did not achieve war aims. A future atomic war, therefore, might well destroy cities but fail to stop enemy aggression. Furthermore, with a much higher urban concentration than the Soviet Union, the U.S. had more to lose from atomic warfare. The article, while providing detailed explanations of the bomb's destructive capability, demonstrated the lack of information available regarding the long-term medical and ecological effects of radioactivity. Hessler's prose also evoked both the fascination that gadgetry of atomic warfare held for Americans of the time and the fear many felt about the risks involved in putting this technology to use. On September 24, 1949, one week after publication of this article, news that the Russians had conducted atom bomb tests shocked the nation. The following April, a National Security Council report to President Harry S. Truman advised development of a hydrogen bomb--some 1,000 times more destructive than an atom bomb--and a massive buildup of non-nuclear defenses. The subsequent outbreak of war in Korea in June 1950 justified to many a substantial increase in defense spending.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
ACT UP and the AIDS Crisis
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This collection uses primary sources to explore AIDS activism during the 1980s. Digital Public Library of America Primary Source Sets are designed to help students develop their critical thinking skills and draw diverse material from libraries, archives, and museums across the United States. Each set includes an overview, ten to fifteen primary sources, links to related resources, and a teaching guide. These sets were created and reviewed by the teachers on the DPLA's Education Advisory Committee.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Provider:
Digital Public Library of America
Provider Set:
Primary Source Sets
Author:
Franky Abbott
Date Added:
04/11/2016
A. F. of L. Delegates.
Read the Fine Print
Educational Use
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Faced with stiff business opposition, a conservative political climate, hostile courts, and declining membership, leaders of the American Federeration of Labor (AFL) grew increasingly cautious during the 1920s. Labor radicals viewed AFL leaders as overpaid, self-interested functionaries uninterested in organizing unorganized workers into unions. A cartoon by William Gropper published in the Communist Yiddish newspaper Freiheit (and reprinted in English in the New Masses ) caricatures delegates to a 1926 AFL convention in Atlantic City. Well

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
"AIDS Is an Illness of People of Color": Health Service Organizations Advocate Increased Federal Funding to Prevent AIDS in Minority Communities
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In 1981, the U.S. medical community noticed a significant number of gay men living in urban areas with rare forms of pneumonia, cancer, and lymph disorders. The cluster of ailments was initially dubbed Gay-Related Immune Disease (GRID), but when similar illnesses increased in other groups, the name changed to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The mid-1980s saw a number of advances toward understanding and treating the disease, but no vaccine or cure was forthcoming. Gay advocacy and community-based organizations began providing services and pressuring government to increase funding for finding a cure and helping victims. As two representatives of AIDS health services organizations stated in the following 1987 testimony to Congress, AIDS spread in disproportionately high numbers throughout U.S. minority and disadvantaged communities. They advocated increased federal funding for prevention efforts targeted at minority communities and administered by community-based organizations. Despite such efforts, the number of minority AIDS cases continued to rise sharply, and by 1996, African Americans accounted for a higher percentage of reported adult cases of AIDS (41%) than did whites.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
ARC Guide for Educators and Students
Unrestricted Use
Public Domain
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This is a searchable database of the cornerstone documents of our government. It has more than 100,000 digitized copies of the National Archives most popular and significant manuscripts, photographs, maps, drawings and other documents.
The guide introduces educators and students to the National Archives' ARC. Searching in ARC to learn more about National Archives' historical documents could enrich a classroom activity, a homework assignment, or a research project.

Subject:
Fine Arts
U.S. History
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Date Added:
09/07/2000
Abraham Lincoln: Man versus Legend
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC
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In this lesson, students interrogate their own assumptions about Abraham Lincoln in order to arrive at a deeper understanding of who Lincoln was. They investigate primary source documents in order to analyze the elements of Lincoln's life that have become legend and those that have been forgotten by history.

Subject:
Reading Informational Text
Social Studies
Civics and Government
U.S. History
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
PBS Learning Media
Date Added:
07/31/2022
Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power
Only Sharing Permitted
CC BY-NC-ND
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This supplemental lesson/activity from the Center for Civic Education looks at the concept of executive power and the challenges Lincoln faced as president. Students are asked to analyze and evaluate President Lincoln's decisions as they relate to decisions made during the Civil War.

Subject:
Civics and Government
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Author:
Center for Civic Education
John J. Patrick
Date Added:
08/16/2022
"Achieving an Atmosphere of Mutual Trust and Confidence": Henry A. Wallace Offers an Alternative to Cold War Containment
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Allies during World War II, the U.S. and the Soviet Union disagreed over a number of issues after the war. These included control of Eastern Europe, division of Germany, atomic energy, international loans, and the Middle East. On February 9, 1946, Soviet premier Josef Stalin asserted that the continued existence of capitalism in the West would inevitably lead to war. Foreign Service senior diplomat George Kennan sent President Harry Truman, still forming a Soviet policy, a lengthy telegram advocating containment. Commerce Secretary Henry A. Wallace--Secretary of Agriculture (1933-1941) and Vice-President from (1941-1945)--was one of the few liberal idealists in Truman's cabinet. Wallace envisioned a "century of the common man" marked by global peace and prosperity. In the following excerpt from a letter dated July 23, 1946, Wallace urged Truman to build "mutual trust and confidence" in order to achieve "an enduring international order." Truman asked Wallace to resign. In March 1947, Truman asked Congress for money "to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Thus articulated, the "Truman Doctrine" of containment served as the rationale for future American Cold War foreign policy initiatives.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
Across the Wide Dark Sea
Unrestricted Use
Public Domain
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A boy and his family endure a difficult nine-week journey across the ocean and survive the first winter at Plymouth. Based on true events, "Across the Wide Dark Sea" poetically narrates a young boy's account of risking the ocean to find religious freedom in a new land.

Subject:
Literature
Fine Arts
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Unit of Study
Provider:
Basal Alignment Project
Provider Set:
Washoe District
Author:
Jean Van Leeuwen
Date Added:
09/01/2013
Act 31 Lesson Plan -- Indian Civil Rights Movement.pdf
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The following lesson is designed to help students explore the emergence of the American Indian Movement (c.1968 and beyond) in the context of the push for self-determination by native people, and within the broader movement for Civil Rights in American Society.

This resource would be appropriate for high school students, during a study of the Civil Rights Movement. It provides primary source materials for students to analyze using the APPARTS process.

This aligns to WI AIS Enduring Understanding #9 "American Indians and U.S. Citizenship".

Subject:
American Indian Studies
U.S. History
Material Type:
Formative Assessment
Lesson
Lesson Plan
Primary Source
Reading
Reference Material
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Author:
Paul Rykken
Date Added:
04/08/2021
"The Act Has Not Failed": A Call to Extend the Voting Rights Act of 1965
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Educational Use
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The Voting Rights Act of 1965--called "the most successful civil rights law in the nation's history" by Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh, chairman of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights--was enacted in order to force Southern states and localities to allow all citizens of voting age to vote in public elections. Although the 15th Amendment, ratified in 1870, guaranteed citizens the right to vote regardless of race, discriminatory requirements, such as literacy tests, disenfranchised many African Americans in the South. In 1965, following the murder of a voting rights activist by an Alabama sheriff's deputy and the subsequent attack by state troopers on a massive protest march in Selma, President Lyndon B. Johnson pressed Congress to pass a voting rights bill with "teeth". The Act, signed into law on August 6, applied to states or counties where fewer than half of the citizens of voting age were registered in 1964--Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Virginia, and numerous counties in North Carolina. For these areas, the law banned literacy tests, appointed Federal examiners to oversee election procedures, and, according to the Act's controversial Section 5, required approval by the U.S. Attorney General of future changes to election laws. In the following letter to a 1969 Senate subcommittee hearing on extending the Act, New Jersey Senator Harrison A. Williams, Jr., provided statistics to show the law's effect. The position described in the letter was Attorney General John Mitchell's proposal to replace Section 5 with an oversight mechanism more amenable to the white South. Ultimately, on June 22, 1970, President Richard M. Nixon signed into law a bill that extended the Act's provisions--including Section 5--for five additional years, and in addition, lowered the voting age throughout the country to 18.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
Actions speak louder than words.
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"The Land of Liberty" was the ironic title of this cartoon published in an 1847 edition of the British satirical weekly Punch. As the cartoon suggests, Americans faced a number of dilemmas and crises that came to revolve around the institution of slavery and its expansion into the West. As slavery became more entrenched in Southern social and economic life, the war against Mexico, the forced removal of Native Americans from the Southeastern United States, and conflicts between rich and poor whites all highlighted the conflicts within Southern society and between the North and South about the place of slavery in a rapidly expanding republic.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
Address of the Colored State Convention to the People of the State of South Carolina
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In November 1865 a group of 52 black delegates met in Charleston's Zion Church to formulate a position regarding their future in the still uncertain world of the post-emancipation South. Their address invoked the language of the Declaration of Independence to claim full rights of citizenship for themselves, rights that were endangered by widespread southern "Black Codes." The Black Codes were a series of laws introduced in the months after the war by the reconstituted state legislatures of the South. These laws were enacted to restrict the movements and employment possibilities of blacks regardless of whether they had been free or enslaved before the war?in essence to replace the constrictions of slavery.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
African American Soldiers in World War I
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This collection uses primary sources to explore the experiences of African American Soldiers in World War I. Digital Public Library of America Primary Source Sets are designed to help students develop their critical thinking skills and draw diverse material from libraries, archives, and museums across the United States. Each set includes an overview, ten to fifteen primary sources, links to related resources, and a teaching guide. These sets were created and reviewed by the teachers on the DPLA's Education Advisory Committee.

Subject:
Ethnic Studies
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Provider:
Digital Public Library of America
Provider Set:
Primary Source Sets
Author:
Jamie Lathan
Date Added:
04/11/2016
"After the Ball": Lyrics from the Biggest Hit of the 1890s
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The 1890s witnessed the emergence of a commercial popular music industry in the United States. Sales of sheet music, enabling consumers to play and sing songs in their own parlors, skyrocketed during the "Gay Nineties," led by Tin Pan Alley, the narrow street in midtown Manhattan that housed the country's major music publishers and producers. Although Tin Pan Alley was established in the 1880s, it only achieved national prominence with the first "platinum" song hit in American music history--Charles K. Harris's "After the Ball"--that sold two million pieces of sheet music in 1892 alone. "After the Ball's" sentimentality ultimately helped sell over five million copies of sheet music, making it the biggest hit in Tin Pan Alley's long history. Typical of most popular 1890s tunes, the song was a tearjerker, a melodramatic evocation of lost love.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
After the Execution
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Educational Use
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The climate of repression established in the name of wartime security during World War I continued after the war as the U.S. government persecuted communists, Bolsheviks, and reds." Caught up in this "Red Scare

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
Against Isolationism: James F. Byrnes Refutes Lindbergh
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The interwar peace movement was arguably the largest mass movement of the 1920s and 1930s, a mobilization often overlooked in the wake of the broad popular consensus that ultimately supported the U.S. involvement in World War II. The destruction wrought in World War I (known in the 1920s and 1930s as the "Great War") and the cynical nationalist politics of the Versailles Treaty had left Americans disillusioned with the Wilsonian crusade to save the world for democracy. Senate investigations of war profiteering and shady dealings in the World War I munitions industry both expressed and deepened widespread skepticism about wars of ideals. Charles Lindbergh, popular hero of American aviation, had been speaking in support of American neutrality for some time, and allies of FDR's interventionist foreign policy sought to counter the arguments of the famous aviator. In a May 19, 1940, radio speech, Senator James F. Byrnes of South Carolina refuted Lindbergh's position, specifically rebutting a speech Lindbergh had given on military spending.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
Agent of Change — KidCitizen
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CC BY-ND
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How did photographers help convince Congress to pass child labor laws? We will explore some of Lewis Hine’s photographs that exposed child working conditions and advocated for child labor laws to protect children.
We will investigate the photographer who captured the photos to understand the sourcing of information as part of a historical inquiry.
In this episode, students will engage in careful observation to identify objects and note details (See), generate and test hypotheses based on evidence they have collected (Think), and reflect on their learning by applying it to related questions (Wonder). A key focus is to consider source information and identify aspects of a primary source that reveal a photographer’s point of view or purpose.

Subject:
Elementary Education
Social Studies
Civics and Government
U.S. History
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
Kid Citizen
Date Added:
06/10/2022
"Aint I A Woman": Reminiscences of Sojourner Truth Speaking
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Isabelle Van Wagenen was born enslaved in New York State and became a well-known abolitionist speaker under the name Sojourner Truth after gaining her freedom in 1827. She moved to New York City where she engaged in evangelical and other reform activities; at various points she also lived in several utopian communities. Truth supported herself by traveling and speaking on abolitionist and women's rights subjects, taking the name Sojourner Truth in 1843. She often faced opposition at her speaking engagements. Truth made this extemporaneous speech in Akron Ohio in 1851 at a women's rights meeting. No direct record of the speech exists, but Frances Gage, a white activist and author who was presiding over the meeting, recalled it over a decade later. While some historians have questioned Gage's accuracy in reconstructing the syntax and even the exact language of Truth's oration, the power and charismatic force of her argument about the equality of women remains evident.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
Air Waves "are in the Public Domain": Public Television Advocacy in the 1950s
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Educational Use
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Although educational radio stations flourished in the early 1920s--more than 200 existed prior to the introduction of network radio in 1926--most faltered shortly thereafter. One reason was the alignment of the Federal Radio Commission (FRC), created by legislation declaring that the airwaves belonged to the public, with commercial interests. When the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) replaced the FRC in 1934, educational, religious, and labor groups promoted an amendment requiring the allocation of one-fourth of all broadcast licenses to nonprofit organizations. The amendment failed to pass, and by 1937, only 38 educational radio stations remained in operation. In 1948, as sales of televisions skyrocketed, Freida B. Hennock, the first female FCC commissioner, began a campaign to assign channel frequencies for nonprofit, educational use. Advocates backing Hennock documented the high number of acts or threats of violence shown to children every week on commercial television broadcasts. Consequently, when the FCC in 1952 added UHF (ultra high frequency) channels to the existing VHF (very high frequency) channels, they reserved 10 percent for use by nonprofit educational organizations. In the following testimony to a 1955 Congressional subcommittee, Hennock advocated oversight of commercial television by governmental and civic bodies and championed educational television. The testimony from the general manager of a new Pittsburgh educational station, William Wood, follows. Wood emphasized the lack of violence in his 'poverty stricken' station's programming and included excerpts from fan mail praising an acclaimed children's show, The Children's Corner, a program co-produced by Fred Rogers, who later created, Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood. Until 1967, however, when the Federal government established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting to appropriate funds for public television, non-commercial stations struggled to survive.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017
The Air is Sweet and Clear, the Heavens Serene, like the South Parts of France: William Penn Advertises for Colonists for Pennsylvania, 1683.
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Educational Use
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William Penn, a well placed English gentlemen and a Quaker, turned an old debt into a charter for the proprietary colony called "Pennsylvania," (all the land between New Jersey and Maryland) Penn took great pains in setting up his colony; twenty drafts survive of his First Frame of Government, the colony's 1682 constitution. Penn was determined to deal fairly and maintain friendly relations with the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians. He laid out in great detail the city of Philadelphia as well as organized other settlements and established the Free Society of Traders to control commerce with England. He sent back glowing accounts of the colony to his English friends and patrons. This Letter to the Free Society of Traders, published in 1683, has been recognized as the most effective of his promotional tracts. And it proved successful; by 1700 Pennsylvania's population reached 21,000.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
American Social History Project / Center for History Media and Learning
Provider Set:
Many Pasts (CHNM/ASHP)
Author:
Center for History and New Media/American Social History Project
Date Added:
11/02/2017